According to Calculatorinc.com, Dar es Salaam (or simply Dar, as the locals call it) is the old capital of the country and one of the largest cities in the region. The name of the city can be translated from Swahili as “Peaceful Shelter”, which is not surprising – the harbor that gave rise to the city allowed even large ships to hide from storms. Therefore, the Zanzibar Sultan decided to establish a city on the site of a small fishing village, which later became the capital of the country. Like most African cities, in Dar es Salaam, individual areas are quite different from each other both in architecture and in the standard of living of their inhabitants. But at the same time, the business districts around the colorful Cariacou Market and the Clock Tower or the boulevards of the government quarters in the north of the city are not very different from the outskirts. There are almost no slums, but the average level of the entire city is low. Typical East African capital. The sights of the city include the palace of Sultan Majid (XIX century), the Clock Tower (1961), the Askari monument in honor of those who died on the fields of the First World War (1972), the Anglican Church of St. Alban (1926), the Lutheran Cathedral (1898- 1904), Greek Orthodox Church (mid-XX century), St. Peter Catholic Church (1962), Catholic Cathedral (1897-1902), Darkhan-Jamaat-Khan Mosque (1930), Ibaddi, Memon mosques, Sunni, Ahmadiyya and others (a whole street of the city is called Moska Street – “street of mosques”). Also of interest are the National Museum with excellent archaeological and anthropological collections, the Village Museum with non-standing dwellings from all regions of Tanzania, the Nyumba-i-Sanaa art gallery with a large collection of traditional handicrafts, Botanical gardens in the heart of the city, next to the National Museum, as well as Mlimali University (“on the hills”) to the northwest of the city center. The colorful markets of the city are also noteworthy – Kariakou, Mzizim fish market and others. The nearest ocean beach to the city is located in Oyster Bay and is famous for the beauty of its coastline. Dodoma in the Chigogo language means “a dream where dirt absorbs”.
An old village on the caravan routes between the ocean coast and Lake Victoria in 1973 suddenly turned into a capital. Dodoma began to develop intensively in the late 70s of the XX century, when it was decided to move the capital of the country 300 km to the west, deep into Tanzanian territory. Hopes for the subsequent economic prosperity of the central provinces clearly did not come true. And even with the construction boom that accompanied the transfer of the capital, Dodoma still looks more like a large village. There are few sights – the building of the National Assembly and the complex of government offices, a large market, two Christian churches and a Sikh temple. But around Dodoma there are several interesting conservation areas – Swagasvaga, Nkungunero, Rudy, Man Maid Mthera Dam and the forest of Miombo. Bagamoyo. A small town 70 km north of Dar es Salaam was once one of the most significant cities on the continent. One of the most important ports of the coast, a major trading center and the capital of the German East African possessions, in the XIX-XX centuries. Bagamoyo was one of the contenders for the title of the capital of the whole country. After the redistribution of German possessions in Africa, at the end of the First World War, Bagamoyo came under the control of the British and gradually fell into disrepair. Now in the city you can see the fort (XIX century), the complex of the Catholic mission (1868-1876) with a small Museum of History, one of the oldest buildings in the city – Luka House, (1868), a caravanserai, the ruins of mosques in Kaole, the Jamaat-Khana-an-Ismaili mosques (1880), the Friday Mosque and others (there are 14 in the city in total), a number of colonial buildings of the German administration and the Livingston Memorial. Zanzibar – the “island-reserve”, once known as the “Island of Spice”, lies 40 km east of the continental coast. One of the most charming places in the Indian Ocean and one of the oldest trading centers in the world, the island has been known since the time of the Sumerians and Assyrians. In the Middle Ages, the island was captured by the Arabs, and the Sultan of Oman even placed his residence here. Arab influence is noticeable on the island even now – Arabic motifs clearly predominate in architecture, the vast majority of the population professes Islam and speaks Arabic (most Zanzibaris trace their ancestry to the Bantu people, but the influence of Arab blood in the local phenotype is clearly visible to the naked eye).
More than half of the island’s territory is occupied by plantations of cloves, cinnamon and other spices, which brought the island its fame and make up the vast majority of its exports. The rest of the territory is covered with thickets of tropical crops and savannah, which gives the numerous monuments of Zanzibar a recognizable look. The main attraction of the island is the old Arab city of Stone Town, built in the 30s of the XX century by the Sultan of Zanzibar as a new capital (now included in the UNESCO World Heritage List). Nowadays ” Forodkhani gardens and the old British Consulate building, the small Natural History Museum on Creek Road and the Palace Museum in the old palace of Sultan Said, the Aga Khan Cultural Center in the building of the old hospital (1887-1894), the Persian baths of Hamamni, Livingston House (1866), the picturesque Kelete Square (“noise” in Swahili), the huge fruit rows of the Great Market (founded in 1904), the Darajani Bazaar and the colorful Dala-Dala bus station (“dala-dala” – a pickup truck converted for passenger traffic). To the north of the city of Zanzibar lie the ruins of the palaces of Maruhubi (built in 1880 for the harem of Sultan Barkhash) and Mtoni (beginning of the 19th century, the residence of Sultan Said). From these ruins, along the Bububu road, plantation tours usually start, where the famous Zanzibar spices are grown. From plantation to plantation from factory to factory – you can walk for hours between thickets of vanilla, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, dozens of varieties of pepper, turmeric, saffron, ginger and other plants often unfamiliar to Europeans. No less interesting are the ruins of Mbweni, Kidichi, Bi-Hole, Tumbatu, Fukuchani, Chuini, Kizimbani and Bungi, the Dunga Palace, the fortress city of Kizimkazi with the unique Shirazi Mosque (until 1107 – the oldest mosque in East Africa), the Church of St. John (XIX century) in Mazizini, the complex of Mangapvani caves, the Sultan’s baths of Kizimbani and Kidichi, the unique protected forest of Khosani (Yozani) with the last colony of colobus monkeys on the island, the village of Kizimkazi, famous for the flock of dolphins living near its shores, and many other interesting places. The islands surrounding Zanzibar can themselves be considered the sights of the country – Pemba with its ruins of the ancient cities of Ras Mkumbu and Regini, Nyoka (“serpentine”) island, Canggu prison island (now only giant land tortoises live here), Grave Island or Chapwani with a British cemetery, excellent snorkeling spots – Sand Bar and Bowie islands, isolated Tumbatu island with the ruins of Persian structures of the XII century, the first Marine National Park in the country – the island of Chumbe with its Coral Park (CHICOP) and many small islands around which the waters of the Indian Ocean saturated with marine life spread. Zanzibar is a recognized regional center for diving and snorkeling. Almost the entire coast of the island is surrounded by reefs, and in front of them, as if ordered, the shores form magnificent beaches. It is worth visiting the village of Nungwi (Ras Nangwi) with its white sandy beach and workshops that build traditional dhows or dhows. and in the village itself there is a small aquarium in which sea turtles are bred. But the main thing here is the sea. Just a few hundred meters from Nungwi lies the island and Mnemba Atoll with its unique sites of Kichwani, Wattabomi, Aquarium, Nungwi Coral Garden, Turtle Gap and Lion Wall (the island is considered one of the best places in the Indian Ocean for scuba diving). No less interesting are the reefs in Chuaka Bay, Uzi Island, the reefs of Baribu, Paye, Murogo, Kizimkazi, Kivenkva, Hunga and Nyange, Liven Bank, Mafia Islands, Pemba, Sand Bar, Bowie (between them there is also a ship that sank in 1897 “Great Nozerner”), reefs near the Fumba Peninsula and Canggu Island, near the village of Makunduchi, as well as in many straits between the islands. Luxurious sandy beaches, ideal for a relaxing holiday, are located at Mangapwani, Matenwe, Mapenzi, Kiwenga, Uroa, Pingwe, Breuu and Jambiani, as well as on many islands. Excellent deep sea fishing is practiced off the coast of the islands of Mafia and Pemba.